Signs that you might be going into labor include Contractions that are regular then start to come closer together Leaking fluid or bleeding from the vagina Low, dull backache Abdominal cramps Call your health care provider if you have any of these signs, even if it is before your due date. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. This article is about birth in humans. East Asian age reckoning starts newborns at "1", incrementing each Lunar New Year. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 7:
The condition, which occurs in nearly 15 percent of births, may begin shortly before or any time after childbirth, but commonly begins between a week and a month after delivery. Childbirth-related posttraumatic stress disorder is a psychological disorder that can develop in women who have recently given birth.
Examples of symptoms include intrusive symptoms , flashback s and nightmare s, as well as symptoms of avoidance including amnesia for the whole or parts of the event , problems in developing a mother-child attachment , and others similar to those commonly experienced in posttraumatic stress disorder PTSD.
Many women who are experiencing symptoms of PTSD after childbirth are misdiagnosed with postpartum depression or adjustment disorders. These diagnoses can lead to inadequate treatment. Postpartum psychosis is a rare psychiatric emergency in which symptoms of high mood and racing thoughts mania , depression, severe confusion, loss of inhibition, paranoia, hallucinations and delusions set in, beginning suddenly in the first two weeks after childbirth.
The symptoms vary and can change quickly. The most severe symptoms last from 2 to 12 weeks, and recovery takes 6 months to a year. They include prematurity and low-birth-weight, infections, lack of oxygen at birth, and trauma during birth. Preterm birth is the birth of an infant at fewer than 37 weeks gestational age. It is estimated that 1 in 10 babies are born prematurely. Premature birth is the leading cause of death in children under 5 years of age though many that survive experience disabilities including learning defects and visual and hearing problems.
Causes for early birth may be unknown or may be related to certain chronic conditions such as diabetes, infections, and other known causes. The World Health Organization has developed guidelines with recommendations to improve the chances of survival and health outcomes for preterm infants. Newborns are prone to infection in the first month of life.
The baby contracts the infection from the mother during labor. In it was estimated that about one in newborn babies have GBS bacterial infections within the first week of life, usually evident as respiratory disease, general sepsis , or meningitis. Untreated sexually transmitted infections STIs are associated with congenital and infections in newborn babies, particularly in the areas where rates of infection remain high.
The majority of STIs have no symptoms or only mild symptoms that may not be recognized. Perinatal asphyxia is the medical condition resulting from deprivation of oxygen to a newborn infant that lasts long enough during the birth process to cause physical harm, usually to the brain. Hypoxic damage can occur to most of the infant's organs heart , lungs , liver , gut , kidneys , but brain damage is of most concern and perhaps the least likely to quickly or completely heal.
Risk factors for fetal birth injury include fetal macrosomia big baby , maternal obesity , the need for instrumental delivery, and an inexperienced attendant. Specific situations that can contribute to birth injury include breech presentation and shoulder dystocia. Most fetal birth injuries resolve without long term harm, but brachial plexus injury may lead to Erb's palsy or Klumpke's paralysis. Historically, most women gave birth at home without emergency medical care available. At the onset of the Industrial Revolution , giving birth at home became more difficult due to congested living spaces and dirty living conditions.
This drove urban and lower class women to newly available hospitals, while wealthy and middle-class women continued to labor at home. In the United States, the middle classes were especially receptive to the medicalization of childbirth, which promised a safer and less painful labor.
Historically women have been attended and supported by other women during labour and birth. However currently in developed countries, as more women are giving birth in a hospital rather than at home, continuous support has become the exception rather than the norm. In the United States, before the s the husband would not be in the birthing room.
It did not matter if it was a home birth ; the husband was waiting downstairs or in another room in the home. If it was in a hospital then the husband was in the waiting room. According to a analysis performed commissioned by the New York Times and performed by Truven Healthcare Analytics, the cost of childbirth varies dramatically by country. Beginning in , the United Kingdom National Institute for Health and Care Excellence began recommending that many women give birth at home under the care of a midwife rather than an obstetrician, citing lower expenses and better healthcare outcomes.
Childbirth routinely occurs in hospitals in most developed countries. Before the 20th century and in some countries to the present day, such as the Netherlands , it has more typically occurred at home.
The exact location in which childbirth takes place is an important factor in determining nationality, in particular for birth aboard aircraft and ships. Different categories of birth attendants may provide support and care during pregnancy and childbirth, although there are important differences across categories based on professional training and skills, practice regulations, as well as the nature of care delivered.
Many of these occupations are highly professionalised, but other roles exist on a less formal basis. Training for this role can be found in hospital settings or through independent certifying organizations.
Each organization teaches its own curriculum and each emphasizes different techniques. Doulas are assistants who support mothers during pregnancy, labour, birth, and postpartum. They are not medical attendants; rather, they provide emotional support and non-medical pain relief for women during labour.
Like childbirth educators and other unlicensed assistive personnel , certification to become a doula is not compulsory, thus, anyone can call themself a doula or a childbirth educator. Confinement nannies are individuals who are employed to provide assistance and stay with the mothers at their home after childbirth.
They are usually experienced mothers who took courses on how to take care of mothers and newborn babies. Midwives are autonomous practitioners who provide basic and emergency health care before, during and after pregnancy and childbirth, generally to women with low-risk pregnancies. Midwives are trained to assist during labour and birth, either through direct-entry or nurse-midwifery education programs.
In jurisdictions where midwifery is not a regulated profession, traditional or lay midwives may assist women during childbirth, although they do not typically receive formal health care education and training. Medical doctors who practice obstetrics include categorically specialized obstetricians , family practitioners and general practitioners whose training, skills and practices include obstetrics, and in some contexts general surgeons.
These physicians and surgeons variously provide care across the whole spectrum of normal and abnormal births and pathological labour conditions. Categorically specialized obstetricians are qualified surgeons , so they can undertake surgical procedures relating to childbirth.
Some family practitioners or general practitioners also perform obstetrical surgery. Obstetrical procedures include cesarean sections , episiotomies , and assisted delivery. Anaesthetists or anesthesiologists are medical doctors who specialise in pain relief and the use of drugs to facilitate surgery and other painful procedures.
They may contribute to the care of a woman in labour by performing epidurals or by providing anaesthesia often spinal anaesthesia for Cesarean section or forceps delivery. Obstetric nurses assist midwives, doctors, women, and babies before, during, and after the birth process, in the hospital system.
Obstetric nurses hold various certifications and typically undergo additional obstetric training in addition to standard nursing training. Paramedics are healthcare providers that are able to provide emergency care to both the mother and infant during and after delivery using a wide range of medications and tools on an ambulance.
They are capable of delivering babies but can do very little for infants that become "stuck" and are unable to be delivered vaginally. Lactation consultants assist the mother and newborn to breastfeed successfully. A health visitor comes to see them at home, usually within 24 hours of discharge, and checks maternal healing and infant development. It is currently possible to collect two types of stem cells during childbirth: In many countries, age is reckoned from the date of birth, and sometimes the birthday is celebrated annually.
East Asian age reckoning starts newborns at "1", incrementing each Lunar New Year. Some cultures view the placenta as a special part of birth, since it has been the child's life support for so many months. The placenta may be eaten by the newborn's family, ceremonially, for nutrition, or otherwise.
Most recently there is a category of birth professionals available who will process the placenta for consumption by postpartum mothers. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about birth in humans. For birth in other mammals, see birth. Umbilical cord and Placental expulsion. Postpartum period and Puerperal disorder.
Caesarean section and Induction of labour. Pain management during childbirth. Men's role in childbirth. Psychiatric disorders of childbirth , Postpartum psychosis , Postpartum depression , Childbirth-related posttraumatic stress disorder , and Maternity blues.
Abuse during childbirth Advanced maternal age , when a woman is of an older age at reproduction Antinatalism Asynclitic birth , an abnormal birth position Childbirth positions Coffin birth Multiple birth Obstetrical bleeding Naegele's rule , to calculate the due date for a pregnancy Natalism Obstetrical Dilemma Perineal massage Pre- and perinatal psychology Reproductive Health Supplies Coalition Traditional birth attendant Unassisted childbirth Vernix caseosa Natural birth topics: Bradley method of natural childbirth Lamaze Natural childbirth Water birth.
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The first stage begins with contractions. It continues until your cervix has become thinner and dilated stretched to about 4 inches wide. The second stage is the active stage, in which you begin to push downward. Crowning is when your baby's scalp comes into view. Shortly afterward, your baby is born. In the third stage, you deliver the placenta.
The placenta is the organ that supplied food and oxygen to your baby during pregnancy. Mothers and babies are monitored closely during labor. Most women are able to have a baby through normal vaginal delivery. If there are complications , the baby may need to be delivered surgically by a Cesarean section. Learn More Related Issues Specifics. Resources Find an Expert. For You Patient Handouts.
After giving birth, you will continue to experience contractions for a few days as your uterus returns to its pre-pregnancy size. You may notice contractions most while your baby is nursing. Find out what really happens during labor and delivery. Learn how to recognize the signs and stages of labor and get an overview of pain management techniques. We would like to show you a description here but the site won’t allow us.